Reading Room

STORE Feature - Inferring migration of CO2 plume

Inferring migration of CO2 plume using injection data and a probabilistic history matching approach

S. Bhowmik
S. Srinivasan (STORE Team Member)
S.L. Bryant (STORE Team Member)

June 2011 -- Large-scale implementation of geologic carbon storage (GCS) will require reliable techniques for monitoring the movement of the CO2 plume in the subsurface. The movement of CO2 plumes beyond the region permitted for storage will be of particular interest both to regulators and to operators. However, the cost of many monitoring technologies, such as time-lapse seismic, limits their application. Given that injection data (pressures, rates) from wells are readily available and inexpensive, we examine whether they can be used as a viable alternative for monitoring and predicting plume migration.


Gulf Coast Carbon Center Feature

Geologic and infrastructure factors for delineating areas for clean coal: examples in Texas, USA

W.A. Ambrose
C. Breton

S.D. Hovorka (STORE Team Member)
I.J. Duncan
G. Gülen
M.H. Holtz
V. Núñez-López


June 2011 -- Texas has a wide variety of areas that can be targeted for new clean-coal facilities. These areas are delineated by mapping spatial linkages between coal- and lignite-bearing formations, groundwater and surface-water resources, and CO2 sinks in brine formations for long-term CO2 storage or in mature oil fields with potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).  



Industry Feature

Industry Feature - NETL's Carbon Capture and Storage Database - Version 3

June, 2011 -- NETL's Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Database includes active, proposed, canceled, and terminated CCS projects worldwide as a layer within Google Earth. This is a great tool for use in training, outreach presentations and educational programming.


STORE Feature - Cement, CO2, Confining Stress & Conductive Pathways

From Science Direct:

Nicolas J. Huerta
Steven L. Bryant
(STORE Team Member)
Brian R. Strazisar
Barbara G. Kutchko
Lauren C. Conrad

February 2011 -- Wells remain inadequately studied with respect to the probability and rate of leakage in geologic CO2 sequestration. Efforts to  model reaction-induced leakage along wells have been limited due to poorly understood reaction between cement and  sequestered CO2 fluids.


GCCC Feature - Dedolomitization, CO2 and Freshwater Aquifers

Katherine D. Romanak
Rebecca C. Smyth
Changbing Yang
Susan D. Hovorka
Jiemin Lu


February 2011 -- Our examination of groundwater geochemistry at a site where CO2 has been injected for decades shows that understanding water-rock interaction is critical to correct interpretations regarding CO2 storage evaluation. Whereas it is currently widely accepted that input of CO2 into an aquifer system will result in calcite dissolution leading to increases in HCO3 - and decreases in pH, we have found that these generalizations may not hold true in all hydrogeologic settings. For example, our geochemical models show that the process of dedolomitization will mimic the effects of calcite dissolution by increasing Ca2+ and decreasing pH, but this reaction is in response to input of calcium ions, not CO2.



Industry Feature - Regulation of Anthropogenic CO2 Storage

February 2011 -- The 81st Texas Legislature (2009) enacted Senate Bill 1387 (SB 1387), relating to implementation projects for the capture, injection, sequestration, or geologic storage (GS, also known as geologic sequestration) of carbon dioxide (CO2). SB 1387 provides a specifically defined statutory basis for regulating geologic storage of anthropogenic CO2 within the existing framework of the Texas Injection Well Act (Chapter 27, Texas Water Code).


21st Century Bureau

* Text of a talk given by Bureau of Economic Geology Director Scott W.Tinker at the Centennial Symposium

As geologists, when we look to the future, we first consider the past. Our past provides perspective, context, and analogs concerning such things as scale, population, and time and human advancement.


In terms of scale, Earth is larger than our neighboring rocky planets, but it is some 1,300 times smaller, by volume, than Jupiter, the largest planet. It is 1.3 million times smaller, by volume, than our Sun. Of course our Sun is smaller than some of the giant stars; for example, Antares has a radius over 400 times that of our Sun, making its volume over 100 million times greater than that of the Sun! Earth is small indeed.

If we look beyond our solar system, although the number of stars cannot actually be counted, astronomers and physicists use the amount of light in the Milky Way Galaxy (luminosity) and the mass of the galaxy to estimate its number of stars, which is somewhere between 100 and 200 billion! Even more mind boggling is the estimated number of galaxies in the universe—around 100 billion. To visualize this number, venture to the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database ( The scale of the universe is so astounding that it makes me want to come back to Earth! On Earth we encounter something else that is counted in billions—human beings.


EOR as Sequestration: Geoscience Perspective

Dr. Susan D. Hovorka and Dr. Scott Tinker


Gulf Coast Carbon Center
Bureau of Economic Geology
Jackson School of Geosciences
The University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX 78712


CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) has a development and operational history several decades longer than geologic sequestration of CO2 designed to benefit the atmosphere and provides much of the experience on which confidence in the newer technology is based. With modest increases in surveillance and accounting, future CO2 EOR using anthropogenic CO2 (CO2-A) captured to decrease atmospheric emissions can be used as part of a sequestration program.